Key Generation Applications


This paper summarizes key generation applications with different wireless techniques.

WiFi/IEEE 802.11

  • Junqing Zhang, Roger Woods, Trung Q. Duong, Alan Marshall, Yuan Ding, Yi Huang, and Qian Xu, “Experimental study on key generation for physical layer security in wireless communications,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 4464 – 4477, Sept. 2016. Open Access. link
  • S. Jana, S. N. Premnath, M. Clark, S. K. Kasera, N. Patwari, and S. V. Krishnamurthy, ‘‘On the effectiveness of secret key extraction from wireless signal strength in real environments,’’ in Proc. 15th Annu. Int. Conf. Mobile Comput. Netw. (MobiCom), Beijing, China, Sep. 2009, pp. 321–332
  • S. Mathur, W. Trappe, N. Mandayam, C. Ye, and A. Reznik, ‘‘Radiotelepathy: Extracting a secret key from an unauthenticated wireless channel,’’ in Proc. 14th Annu. Int. Conf. Mobile Comput. Netw. (MobiCom), San Francisco, CA, USA, Sep. 2008, pp. 128–139.

ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4

  • C. T. Zenger, M. Pietersz, J. Zimmer, J.-F. Posielek, T. Lenze, and C. Paar, “Authenticated key establishment for low-resource devices exploiting correlated random channels,” Comput. Netw., vol. 109, pp. 105–123, 2016.
  • S. T. Ali, V. Sivaraman, and D. Ostry, ‘‘Eliminating reconciliation cost in secret key generation for body-worn health monitoring devices,’’ IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2763–2776, Dec. 2014.


  • S. N. Premnath, P. L. Gowda, S. K. Kasera, N. Patwari, and R. Ricci, ‘‘Secret key extraction using Bluetooth wireless signal strength measurements,’’ in Proc. 11th Annu. IEEE Int. Conf. Sens., Commun., Netw. (SECON), Singapore, Jun./Jul. 2014, pp. 293–301.


  • H. Ruotsalainen and S. Grebeniuk, “Towards wireless secret key agree-ment with LoRa physical layer,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Availability, Reliabilityand Security, Hamburg, Germany, Aug. 2018, p. 23.
  • J. Zhang, A. Marshall, and L. Hanzo, “Channel-envelope differencingeliminates secret key correlation: LoRa-based key generation in low powerwide area networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 67, no. 12, pp.12 462–12 466, 2018.
  • W. Xu, S. Jha, and W. Hu, “Lora-key: Secure key generation system for LoRa-based network,” IEEE Internet Things J., 2018.